Events/alerts/notifications have been a central concept in IT management at least since the first SNMP trap was emitted, and probably even long before that. And yet they are curiously absent from all the Cloud management APIs/protocols. If you think that’s because “THE CLOUD CHANGES EVERYTHING” then you may have to think again. Over the last few days, two of the most experienced practitioners of Cloud computing pointed out that this omission is a real pain in the neck. RightScale’s Thorsten von Eicken was first to request “an event based interface instead of a request-reply based interface”, pointing out that “we run a good number of machines that do nothing but chew up 100% cpu polling EC2 to detect changes”. George Reese seconded and started to sketch a solution. And while these blog posts gave the issue increased visibility recently, it has been a recurring topic on the AWS Forum and other similar discussion boards for quite some time. For example, in this thread going back to 2006, an Amazon employee wrote that “this is a feature we’ve discussed recently and we’re looking at options” (incidentally, I see a post by Thorsten in that old thread). We’re still waiting.
Let’s look at what it would take to define such a feature.
I have some experience with events for IT management, having been involved in the WS-Notification family of specifications and having co-chaired the OASIS technical committee that standardized them. This post is not about foisting WS-Notification on Cloud APIs, but just about surfacing some of the questions that come up when you try to standardize such a mechanism. While the main use cases for WS-Notification came from IT (and Grid) management, it was supposed to be a generic mechanism. A Cloud-centric eventing protocol can be made simpler by focusing on fewer use cases (Cloud scenarios only). In addition, WS-Notification was marred by the complexity-is-a-sign-of-greatness spirit of the time . On this too, a Cloud eventing protocol could improve things by keeping IBM at bay simplicity in mind.
Types of event
When you pull the state of a resource to see if anything changed, you don’t have to tell the provider what kind of change you are interested in. If, on the other hand, you want the provider to notify you, then they need to know what you care about. You may not want to be notified on every single change in the resource state. How do you describe the changes you care about? Is there an agreed-upon set of states for the resource and you are only notified on state transitions? Can you indicate the minimum severity level for an event to be emitted? Who determines the severity of an event? Or do you get to specify what fields in the resource state you want to watch? What about numeric values for which you may not want to be notified of every change but only when a threshold is crossed? Do you get to specify a query and get notified whenever the query result changes? In WS-Notification some of this is handled by WS-Topics which I still like conceptually (I co-edited it) but is too complex for the task at hand.
What format are the events serialized in? How is the even metadata captured (e.g. time stamp of observation, which may not be the same as the time at which the notification message was sent)? If the event payload is a representation of the new state of the resource, does it indicate what field changes (and what the old value was)? How do you keep event payloads consistent with the resource representation in the request/response interactions? If many events occur near the same time, can you group them in one notification message for better scalability?
Presumably you need a subscription mechanism. Is the subscription set in stone when the resource is created? Or can you come later and subscribe? If subscription is an operation on the resource itself, how do you subscribe for events on something that doesn’t exist yet (e.g. “create a VM and notify me once it’s started”)? Do you get to set subscriptions on a per-resource-basis? Or is this a global setting for all the resources that you own? Can you have two different subscriptions on the same resource (e.g. a “critical events only” subscription that exist throughout the life of the resource, plus a “lots of events please” subscription that you keep for a few hours while troubleshooting)?
Do you get to come back and update/pause/delete a subscription? Do you get to change what filter the subscription carries? Or is it set in stone until the subscription expires? Can you change the delivery endpoint? What if events fail to be delivered? Does the provider cancel your subscription? After how many failures? Does it just pause it for a few hours? Keep trying?
Who sets the expiration period? The subscriber? Can the provider set a max duration? Do you get a warning message before the subscription expires? Can you renew a subscription or do you have to create a new one? Do you get a message telling you that it has expired? Where are these subscription-lifecycle messages sent? To the same endpoint as the regular messages? What if your subscription is being killed because your deliver endpoint is down, clearly it makes no sense to send the warning message to that same endpoint. Do you provide a separate “subscription management” endpoint (different from the event delivery endpoint) when you subscribe? Alternatively, does an email message get sent to the registered user who set the subscription?
How reliable do you want the notifications to be? Should the emitter retry until they’ve received a confirmation? How long do they keep messages that can’t be delivered? Some may have a very short shelf life while others are still useful weeks later. If you don’t have a reliable mechanism but you really “need to know about a lost server within a minute of it disappearing” (the example Georges gives) then in reality you may still have to poll just to make sure that an event wasn’t lost. If you haven’t received an event in a while, how can you test if the subscription is still working? Should subscriptions send a heartbeat message once a while?
How do you deliver notifications? Do you keep HTTP connections open through tricks similar to how self-updating web pages work (e.g. COMET, long polling and soon WebSockets)? Or do you just provide a listener endpoint to which the notifier tries to connect (which, in the case of public cloud deployments, means you need to have a publicly-addressable listener, but hopefully not on the same Cloud infrastructure). Do you use XMPP? AMQP? Email? Can I have you hold my events and let me come pull them?
Do you need to verify the origin of the events you receive? Or do you assume they may be forged and always initiate a connection to the provider to double-check? And on the other side, what are the security requirements for event delivery? If a user looses some of their privileges, do you have to go and cancel the still-active subscriptions that they created?
Is there a maximum event rate? Do you get charged for the events the Cloud provider sends you? How do you make sure that someone doesn’t create a subscription pointing to the wrong endpoint (either erroneously or maliciously, e.g. DoS). Do you send a test message at registration asking the delivery endpoint to acknowledge that they indeed want to receive these notifications?
My goal is not to argue that we cannot have a simple yet good enough notification system or to scare anyone from attempting to define it. It’s just to show that it’s not as simple as it may seem at first blush. But there probably is a sweetspot and people like Thorsten and George are very well qualified to find it.
[UPDATED 2010/4/7: Amazon releases AWS Simple notification Service. Not just as an eventing feature for the Cloud API, as a generic notification service. Which can, of course, also carry Cloud management events. Though at this point you’re on your own to publish them from your instances, it doesn’t look like the AWS infrastructure can do it for you. Which means, for example, that you’re not going to be able to publish an event for a sudden crash.]